Herpes Tips

Evidence of Human Papillomavirus in the Placenta

Treatment with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or irradiation with ultraviolet light (uv254 nm) induces amplification of integrated as well as episomal sequences of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 DNA in BPV-1-transformed mouse C127 cells (i.e., ID13 cells). +ve: Positive sample; −ve: negative sample; M: PCR marker; PC: positive control (HeLa cell lines for HPV; Raji cell line for EBV; GMK, infected cell with HSV); NC: negative control. The oral shedding of HSV contributes to mother-child-transmission of HSV. SLPI, ubiquitously found in body fluids, is known for its an anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-protease properties. 100.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve HIV-infected adults were included. While HPV-16 is associated with differentiated Bowenoid type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, which appears to be the most common form of early carcinoma of the vulva, the same association was not seen with respect to advanced vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma. HPV type 16, which is present in most HPV-associated tonsillar cancers, was the most prevalent high-risk oral HPV infection.

Controlling for subsequent circumcision status, baseline herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus, and sexual and sociodemographic risk factors, the hazard ratio for HIV infection among men with HPV-positive glans/coronal sulcus specimens was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1–2.9), compared with men with HPV-negative glans/coronal sulcus specimens. In vitro experiments suggested several molecular mechanisms providing plausible explanations for the association between placental HPV infection and the adverse outcome of pregnancy. Ectopic HPV-16 E5, E6, and/or E7 expression in trophoblastic cell lines has been associated with changes in viability, reduced adhesion, enhanced migration, and enhanced invasion of these cells [2, 5, 6]. Besides, the HPV-16 early promoter can be constitutively activated in several trophoblastic cell lines, which could be partly attributed to secreted progesterone, hence emphasizing the hormonal regulation of the HPV gene expression regulation during pregnancy (C. Weyn, J. Rasschaert, J.-M. Prevalence of HPV in Ocular-Surface Diseases.

Englert, and V. Fontaine, submitted). Other studies on the vertical transmission of HPVs have often been hampered by the possible contamination of the placenta with cervical cells from an infected birth canal. To circumvent this bias, we analyzed transabdominally obtained placental samples to examine strictly intrauterine HPV placental infection. From November 2008 until January 2010, 35 women gave their informed consent to use residual material from abdominal chorionic villous sampling after cytogenetical examinations for the HPV detection study by our laboratory. The gestational age of the sampling was between the 11th and the 13th gestational week. The results are disappointing in papillomavirus lesions and in chronic acyclovir-resistant herpes ulcerations, efficacy is debatable.

All samples were treated upon arrival. Individuals in Baltimore, Maryland, were recruited during 2001–2002 to participate in an oral-cancer screening program and cross-sectional study. The present analysis included men enrolled in the trial who consented to the collection of an exfoliated penile cell sample and its shipment overseas for HPV DNA testing (Figure 1). The extracted DNA from placental tissue was used in 3 different consensus PCR reactions in 2 different regions of the viral genome. The L1 region was amplified using 2 sensitive nested PCR strategies, both based on a general PGMY09/11 PCR, followed by a second nested PCR with either the GP5+/6+ or the SPF10 primers, performed as described elsewhere [8]. The pU PCR, amplifying the E6/E7 region, was performed in parallel, using 50 pmol/L pU-1-M-L forward primer, 25 pmol/L of the pU-2-R and 25 pmol/L of the pU-2-R-N reverse primers, as described elsewhere [9]. This PCR was shown to amplify HPV-16, -18, -26, -30, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -58, -59, -66, -68, -73, -85 [9,] and not HPV-34, -53, -56, -82 (our unpublished results).

Negative controls were included in every PCR reaction to rule out possible laboratory cross-contamination. HPV genotypes were determined with the INNO-LiPA Genotyping v2 kit (Innogenetics, Ghent, Belgium). This reverse hybridization line probe assay relies on the amplification of a 65 bp fragment in the L1 region with the SPF10 biotinylated primers, amplifying 23 HR- and LR-HPV types (HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -40, -42, -43, -44, -45, -51, -52, -53, -54, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, -70, -74), followed by streptavidin conjugation and substrate signal amplification [10]. HPV pU and GP5+/6+ PCR products were purified using a GFX column (Amersham) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Direct DNA sequence analysis was performed using a capillary sequencer (ABI Prism 3130). The residual trophoblastic placental cells used for HPV detection were obtained from 35 placental samples of women undergoing chorionic villous sampling (CVS) for different clinical indications, mainly being patients with a high risk for chromosomal abnormalities. HPV DNA was detected in 2 out of 35 placental samples.

The first sample contained HPV-16, classified as a high-risk HPV genotype, as identified by the INNO-LiPA genotyping method. This genotype could be confirmed upon sequencing of the E6/E7 PCR product. The combination of 2 PCR reactions in different regions of the viral genome leaves no doubt about the presence of a true HPV-16 infection. Smokers were defined as individuals with ⩾1 pack-year of cigarette use, and former smokers were defined as those who had quit for >1 year. Subsequent HPV genotyping was performed by reverse line blot hybridization of PCR products, as described elsewhere [6]. Accordingly, the INNO-LiPA genotyping method after SPF10 PCR was unable to identify HPV-62, since this type is not included in the test. The results are summarized in .

It is noteworthy that HPV-62 was never detected before in our laboratory, hence further ruling out possible laboratory cross-contamination. We demonstrated the presence of HPV in 2 out of 35 transabdominally obtained placental samples, although we cannot exclude the actual HPV prevalence being higher, given that the analysis was restricted by limited amounts of placental material available, as recommended by the ethical committee. Since HPV-16 is often detected in cervical samples, we propose that placental infection might occur either through an ascending infection from the cervix or via infected sperm at fecundation. Indirect evidence supporting this first theory was postulated by Hermonat and colleagues [3] who observed a higher spontaneous abortion rate in women with cervical HPV infection compared with HPV-negative women (60% vs 20%). It is noteworthy that when retrospectively inquiring for the HPV cervical status from the 2 patients having an HPV positive CVS, the patient harboring an HPV-16 positive placenta had a HPV-negative cervical smear 9 months before and 14 months after the puncture. This information might be difficult to interpret, as the time of the puncture and of the cervical anatomo-pathological analyses did not coincide. This could, however, also suggest a placental HPV infection via infected sperm [11].

A hematogenous infection seems less likely but cannot be excluded. Our results are in concordance with previous studies suggesting vertical transmission of both α- and β-HPVs [12, 13]. On the other hand, our results are in discordance with one study reporting the absence of HPV DNA in 147 abdominally obtained placental samples, possibly due to the use of a less sensitive PCR strategy [14]. In our study, we optimized all PCR reactions in order to obtain maximum sensitivity through adaptation of annealing temperature, ramp speed, and Mg2+ concentration [8]. The etiological association between HPV placental infection and a possible adverse outcome on pregnancy was not examined in our study and could therefore not be underlined. Unknown sample quantities were derived by interpolating threshold cycle number values from a standard curve generated from logarithmic dilutions (from 50,000 to 0.5) of a diploid human cell line, CCD-18LU (ATCC CCL-205). Specimens that were indeterminate by line immunoassay were tested by PCR at Health Canada or the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington), with the PCR result deemed to be definitive.

Vertical HPV transmission could possibly be prevented by vaccination, although the clinical impact of placental HPV infection will require further study. In conclusion, HPV-16 and HPV-62 were detected in 2 out of 35 transabdominally obtained placental punctures. Additional larger studies will be needed to assess HPV type distribution and prevalence in the placenta. This study was funded by a grant from the Brussels Capital Region of Brussels, Prospective Research for Brussels, the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS/FRSM convention 3.4568.09), ASBL Les Amis de l’Institut Pasteur de Bruxelles and the Fondation Rose et Jean Hoguet.

Herpes Tips

Conscious Children: A Brief Look at Hydranencephaly

In my old life, I go to spin class and lunch with friends, but you and I will just go outside and watch the guy who just got out of jail do pull-ups on the light post. The winner in the GT500 class was the No.100 RAYBRIG HSV-010 driven by (Takuya Izawa/Takashi Kogure). But the national team partly became a bitter story for the playmaker. Kiel in September. And it needed a very loud interruption of coach Martin Schwalb in the halftime break to turn the match in the second half, as the Spaniards surprisingly led 15:11 after 30 minutes. ehfCL.com: All teams in Pot 2 wanted to face Chekhovskie Medvedi before the draw –and you will play against them. His team will be able to count on German international Michael Kraus again.

Like St. Plock had won the first leg in style (28:25), it was their first ever win against their upcoming opponent. Adrian Pfahl: It is already brilliant for me to be back at the EHF Cup Finals, and I am absolutely happy to be there with Frisch Auf Göppingen. It has been linked to injuries to the fetus, placental anomalies, and cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and Toxoplasma gondii infections affecting the mother (2). For instance, there is high correlation between adjacent pixels in a single video frame (the set of all picture elements that represent one complete image), since objects in video tend to be of fairly uniform color and texture. These mutations are virtually mutually exclusive and are all considered “second hits” or “driving mutations” within the MPNs whereas the primary genetic hit or “founding mutation” remains unknown [4]. Don’t confuse my patience for feebleness.


Disgruntled retailers will get a new version of the album with extra tracks; a further album is planned for sale in 2015. The No. Burn patients and even elderly patients notice more rapid healing. Each gram of Hydroquinone USP, 4% Skin Bleaching 500 cells/mm3 for more hydroquinone USP, in a vanishing cream base of glyceryl monostearate, mineral oil, PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, polyoxyl 40 stearate, propylene the dosage of Docetaxel sodium metabisulfite, squalane and mg/m2 to 60 mg/m2.. Drug Discov. The extent of the damage was too great for him to rejoin, and he was forced to retire on the spot. Krumm then set a blistering pace in an effort to make up positions, but was hindered by falling grip levels which eventually necessitated another visit to the pit for some fresh rubber.

This time, what happened at the start was hugely influential in the outcome of the race. The two latter properties are of a dynamic nature and in many ways are more interesting for function than the steady state orientation. Meanwhile, there was confusion among the cars that had started at the back of the grid, with contact and spins at the first corner. “to see, to hear, to feel, or otherwise to experience something is to be conscious, irrespective of whether in addition one is aware that one is seeing, hearing, and so forth, as cogently argued by Dretske. Such additional awareness, in reflective consciousness or self-consciousness, is one of many content of consciousness available to creatures with sophisticated cognitive capacities. Lupus. To dwell in the latter is not to fall unconscious, but to be unselfconsciously conscious.

Reflective awareness is thus more akin to a luxury of consciousness on the part of certain big-brained species, and not its defining property” (3). Children with hydranencephaly demonstrate evidence for Merker’s argument that the brain stem holds many answers for understanding consciousness. On the website, Rays of Sunshine, families of children with hydranencephaly support one another and exchange information. In three separate questionnaires, they gathered data about their experiences, asking numerous questions ranging from the age, sex, and time of diagnosis to medical conditions, allergies and medications their child was currently prescribed. The data proved to show an enormous amount of surprising and sometimes, contradictory information compared to what had been previously believed of the children (5). The most common health concerns with the children were respiratory, neurological issues involving problems with the shunt used for drainage of fluid from the brain (approx. 65% of children have shunts), seizures (approx.

77%), feeding problems and spasticity (5). 38 ZENT CERUMO SC430 on the sixth lap and had to return to the pit on lap eight and forced to lose its hard-earned position. This gives rise to understanding implications to many other important issues surrounding ethics including pain management in neonates, understanding fetal pain and pain for those who live in so-called “vegetative” states.

Herpes Tips

Seattle researchers say pill thwarts spread of genital herpes


About 48 million people in the United States have genital herpes. The drug’s called valacyclovir and it’s prescribed to people with genital herpes and, less often, people with cold sores caused by a different strain of herpes. Acyclovir 800 mg is not a controlled substance under the Controlled Substance Act (CSA). The sexually transmitted virus infects an estimated one in five Americans over age 12, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital herpes affects the genitals, back, buttocks or anal area. It’s a serious public-health issue because the disease is incurable, and herpes sores on the genitals can be painful and facilitate the transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

In each case, one partner had genital herpes and the other did not. Half of the infected people were given a daily dose of Valtrex and the other half received a placebo. Both groups were urged to use condoms, but few did so consistently. The chance of spreading herpes to a partner was low during the eight-month study, even among the placebo group, perhaps because these were established partners who’d already managed to avoid passing the virus. The likelihood of passing herpes to a partner was 3.6 percent without Valtrex compared with 1.9 percent with the drug. The drug is not 100 percent effective at preventing transmission, so people with herpes should still tell potential partners about their infection, said Dr. The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in people with weak immune systems.

Herpes Tips

My Experience with Bell’s Palsy

1     Can you imagine going to bed one night and being fine, just to wake up with half of your face paralyzed? Consequently, patients with Bell’s palsy frequently present to the ED before seeing any other health care professional. I’m female in generally good health but was dealing with a tremendous amount of stress at home at the time (coupled with Christmas/holiday stress). It all started the morning after Christmas in 2010. In rare cases, it may affect both sides. The probable sequence of events is viral reactivation, multiplication, and axonal spread causing facial nerve inflammation, demyelination, and ultimately palsy. Men and women are equally at risk of getting Bell’s palsy.

As I was losing the feeling in my face on this Sunday morning, I felt similar twitches traveling around my cheek, my eyebrows, my forehead and lips. This association remains speculative. Naturally, as this was going on I was freaking out, should I call an ambulance? Is this life threatening? It’s really good to know you don’t have herpes, dormant or otherwise. I immediately ran to my computer and googled “right side of face paralyzed.” What I found is that I wasn’t having a stroke, but had a condition called Bell’s Palsy which can be caused by many factors. We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of 13 patients who were diagnosed with either Bell’s palsy or Ramsay Hunt syndrome from 1995 to 2004 and their MRI scan upon the diagnosis.

This patient was assigned to the control group and the level of recovery attained was not reported. A simple test of taste should be performed. My right eye wouldn’t close and the right side of my face looked dead. I ran down to my nearest Urgent Care office, and they confirmed that yes, I was experiencing Bell’s Palsy. Experimental data support a hypothesis of low temperatures in the pathogenesis of BP [15-18]. I requested to see a doctor and with much resistance they went and fetched the in-house doctor. She told me that there was no real way at this point for them to tell me what was causing the Bell’s Palsy, and that I should just take some valacyclovir and prednisone and “hope for the best.” I was very dismayed at this and demanded to know why this was happening to me!?!?

The doctor told me all we can do is wait and if it persists, THEN we will do more investigating. She told me, “something has decided to attack you’re facial nerve and we’re not sure why it happens.” With all the crazy feelings and emotions I was experiencing, this was not what I wanted to hear. Most people have chickenpox at some stage (usually as a child) and many people have cold sores. Not only are you dealing with the physical issues, lessened eyesight, a general dull pain on the nerve, an inability to eat properly, severe ear pain, and having to hold up the lower eyelid with your FINGER so your eye won’t dry out (eye patch didn’t work for me), but the emotional issues that came along were also severe. Call me vain, but I’m a young female and figured I had many years before getting the usual wrinkles and age spots. The goal of the nutritional support would be to decrease inflammation, control any swelling and add nutrients known to speed the healing of nerves. Also, you’re dealing with neurological issues – losing control of something you’ve had control of since in the womb can bring on great depression.

I absolutely could not get out of bed and cried daily for at least a week. I really feel for anyone who’s put in this position. Yes, there are much worse things that can happen and I just tried to keep reminding myself of that. I wasn’t dying, but the whole uncertainty of the whole thing (what caused it? Will it get better?) was really messing with my mind. If you have no feeling and little saliva on one side of your tongue, food may get stuck there, leading to gum disease or tooth decay. A few people are left with some permanent facial weakness after recovering from Bell’s palsy, though.

The process can take years! As I spent the next two weeks in bed, I had to remove my contact out of my right eye because it was so dry since the lower eyelid was drooping. My nearsightedness (which was WORSE now) limited my vision to a few feet in front of me. An affected ear may lead to sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis). So what could I do? Well, I put my smartphone about six inches in front of my face so I could see it, and researched everything I possibly could about Bell’s Palsy on my Blackberry. High-dose steroids (>120 mg/d of prednisone) have been safely used to treat Bell’s palsy in patients with diabetes;[29, 30] however, optimal dosing has not been established.

As I searched I came up with more questions than answers. What I found through internet searches is that the condition can be caused by SO many things – anything that causes damage or trauma to the facial nerve, ranging from cancerous tumors, to Lyme Disease to even rough housing with your dog and sustaining injury! All comments are moderated and will not appear until approved. Side effects There is a low risk of side effects (~ 1-4%) even from a short (one week) course of oral prednisolone. I’ve never had an STD and quickly dismissed this as being a possibility for causing my Bell’s Palsy (have had same partner for 7 years). Another cause I found is Ramsay Hunt Syndrome 2, but I dismissed that as well since it referenced the herpes virus. About 10 days into it I noticed my ears popping a lot, accompanied with sharp pains in the right ear.

I also had a very slight ringing and my ear generally felt very stopped up. I still had no improvement in my muscles and had absolutely ZERO movement on the right side of face. I had been taking a lot of prednisone as well as acyclovir and felt feverish like my body was fighting something. Also, for some reason my body was craving insane quantities of garlic (bless my boyfriend at the time for cooking constantly). In all patients, edema and swelling was observed in the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve. At two weeks with no improvement the depression was really getting to me. But then a miracle happened.

I had taken a very long nap and when I woke up I went to the bathroom to see if there were any changes. I had read online to NOT go overboard with trying to force your muscles to move, because you can actually re-train your brain to move them too much and when they heal they will be contorted. The mean value of each meteorological parameter recorded from all days of each cluster was calculated so as to provide a realistic overall estimate of the corresponding weather type (Table ). The rest of my face was still dead, but I felt a slight bit of hope for the first time. Since that moment, things improved at a torturously SLOW, but steady rate. At the three-week mark I stopped taking steroids as they don’t recommend you stay on them too long due to bad side effects. As the next few weeks progressed I noticed a little improvement in my mouth, then cheek, then eye movement.

Finally at about the one month mark my eye began to close without my finger holding it. Three months into the ordeal, my forehead and chin began to improve, but my “kissy face” still was crooked. My smile was still at about 75% of what it used to be on the right side (same goes for raising my eyebrows), but I knew there was some time to go as the doctor’s told me it’s a 6-month to a year or more healing process. Around the two-month mark I started to notice a NEW symptom. It’s rare I get acne, but I broke out with an especially-nasty spread of pimples covering about 3 inches near my right temple, spreading down to my ear. I thought perhaps it was attributed to some massage lotion I used to massage my face during the first month, and told myself I would never use that product again on my skin. But the pimples then popped up on my lower right cheek, jaw, and seemed to be travelling slowly down, leaving destruction in its path!

Not trying to be gross, but the pimples were especially painful and difficult to remove or pop (not that I recommend this). While this did suck bigtime, it was the factor that revealed WHY THIS HAPPENED TO ME! One night, around the 5 or 6 month mark, I still had nasty acne on the right side of my face and now forehead and was beginning to think it odd that a massage lotion would create such long-term effects on my skin. I asked my doctor if the prednisone could have caused this long-term acne, and he was adamant that it would have been gone by now. He was baffled but told me to ask an ear-nose-throat specialist. I also was experiencing CONSTANT ear-popping which had happened since 10-days into it, accompanied by ear pain. I called an entirely new ENT and the doctor who had never seen me before actually spoke with me on the phone!

I told him what was going on. Lubricating eye drops, such as artificial tears or eye ointments or gels, and eye patches are also effective. Well, I hear “herpetic” and think, I don’t have herpes! I started to research this term, and the words “Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Type 2” kept appearing on my web searches. Turns out, this condition is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. While entirely different from herpes simplex which causes the STD known as genital herpes, it is a part of the herpes family, which come in many forms. How did I contract this?

Well, it all began in preschool, when I came down with the chicken pox (in 1984!!). Turns out, when somebody contracts this virus, they get chicken pox. Then, the virus lies dormant in a bundle of nerves near your ear. As the years go by, your immune system can change and stress, illness or other factors can cause the virus to “become alive again” or reactivate. But instead of getting another case of the chicken pox, the virus returns in the form of something called SHINGLES – first on the nerve bundle where the facial nerve is (disabling it and causing Bell’s Palsy), then travels along the nerve paths out to the nerve endings which is actually what the acne was on my face. Gross! Figuring this out at the six-month mark was pretty relieving and as my face regained its movement, I started to feel better like I on the road to recovery.

The same doctor that told me I had post-herpetic neuralgia also diagnosed me with TMJ, which is a muscle spasm which could have been caused by the Bell’s Palsy that causes ear pain and popping. After being treated for TMJ (and with a mental effort to stop “popping” my ears), I did notice considerable improvement in the pain factor. Now at the one-year mark, I still have several effects that remain. I’m left with a slight woman-moustache presumably from taking the prednisone, and I have to epilate now. I still have about 5% permanent damage to the muscle movement of my face. No one notices this but me. Also, my eyesight was permanently damaged in my right eye but only slightly as I wear a -7.5 now instead of -7.0 contact.

The shingles left me with slight scarring on my face, similar to miniature “pock marks”. Another thing I notice is when I smile or wrinkle my forehead I see a tiny bulge of vein on the right side that wasn’t there before. I think this comes with aging anyways but it wasn’t there before and it’s only on the right side, so I think I have some slight atrophy. Also in photos I notice my eyes are a slightly different size. But overall I think my face is about 95% back to what it used to be. Details on my treatment – I started taking valcyclovir and prednisone within about 6 hours of onset (but the sooner the better). I took B12 and a B complex for two months.

I had constant bedrest for two weeks. I ate a ton of fruit, vegetables and garlic. I smoked medical marijuana every day for pain relief (improves my life and doesn’t bring me down – most people can’t relate but please don’t judge me). I massaged my face several times a day with a high quality pain relieving massage oil. I used Neosporin on the shingles and did try to pop them (several unsuccessfully which cause probable scarring but I did successfully remove about 50% of them which really helped). Something that I think really helped was to take INSANE amounts of B12 vitamin plus a B complex! These are essential to nerve regeneration – some people even get shots.

After the shingles disappeared I purchased an expensive face cream called strivectin which I think minimized the scarring. Don’t take Flonase or any other nasal sprays!!! At the six month mark I visited the doctor for the ear-popping, and she suggested I take Flonase to “clear up the passages.” Turns out Flonase lowers your immune system. I got the shakes and shivers and the existing pimples/shingles flared up and seemed to almost start spreading! I immediately got back on valcyclovir and it got better.

Herpes Tips

Vaccinations – Dogs / Cats / Rabbits

For the first few weeks of life, your pet is usually protected against disease by the immunity they receive in their mother ́s milk. They have done more to prevent disease and improve well-being than even antibiotics or surgery. Having a yearly vaccination is a vital opportunity for the vet to perform a thorough health check, often allowing us to pick up problems early and discuss any concerns you may have. However, there are other important aspects of routine care which should help to keep your cat in good health for many years to come. Distemper is a virus that is easily spread from dog to dog, via the respiratory system and is usually fatal. New WSAVA guidelines recommend a titre test once a year rather than routinely giving dogs/cats a booster. We humans love our holidays because they provide a welcome break from our normal daily routines, but it can be a very stressful time for our pets who may find a change to their normal routine very unsettling and this may present itself as behavioural changes and even a loss of appetite.

Continued vaccination of as many dogs as possible is, however, necessary if distemper is to remain under control. Boarding kennels may insist dogs are given kennel cough vaccination to stay with them. This is because they have antibodies in their bloodstream ready to fight. It spreads through the air, particularly when dogs cough. The vaccination is very effective. In the last edition of CHC Update, I suggested that although we and other informed pet guardians were happy about the anti-booster letter in Veterinary Times, nothing much was likely to change. The bacteria needs a moist environment to survive therefore dogs spending a lot of time around water are most at risk.

I looked at homeopathic treatments & on advice from a homeopath I started my girl on Sepia 30c for 10 days every month until she came into season where at which point you stop. Vaccination is very good but only lasts 1 year, dogs at higher risk need vaccinating more often. Kennel Cough (infectious tracheobronchitis) – Kennel cough I caused by a combination of bacteria and viruses including: canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus 2 and Bordetella. From around the age of 5-8months kittens reach sexual maturity and are therefore capable of breeding and producing kittens themselves. It is also highly infectious and spreads rapidly through dogs coming into close contact e.g. in kennels. Rabies – vaccination against rabies is unnecessary in the UK as we are free from Rabies.

The proportion of the population that must be vaccinated for herd immunity to work depends on the prevalence of the disease, the effectiveness of the vaccine, and other factors, but in most cases more than 90% of individuals must be vaccinated for those who are not to be protected. Establish a routine from day one, puppies and kittens often defaecate after eating or waking up. Some puppies do not have good protection from their mother and so benefit from early vaccination. This is so that they are protected fully by the time they can start going out and about at 13 weeks of age. These diseases are mainly transmitted from wild rabbits although insects can carry both diseases, so even house rabbits are still at risk. Vaccines offer very good protection however on some occasions an individual dog may not get full protection from the vaccine. This is usually because the dog was already ill or stressed at the time of injection.

The vet will examine your dog before they give the injection and any concerns from the owner should be raised at this time. Feline Panleucopaenia (feline distemper/feline infectious enteritis) – feline panleucopaenia virus causes severe vomiting and diarrhoea leading to a potentially fatal dehydration within 2-3 days. Kittens and young cats are particularly at risk. The virus is spread in infected faeces but vaccination provides good protection. Swollen nipples: Sometimes, but not always, the nipples and breasts will swell slightly. It is rarely fatal except in those otherwise unwell, elderly or very young. We asked, if your dog is ill, when did he become ill in relation to the vaccine?

This means they pose a risk to any unvaccinated cat. Feline Leukaemia (FeLV) – not all cats infected with the virus get the disease but those that do often die. The disease destroys the cat’s defences against other disease and can lead to cancer which is often fatal. The virus spreads by direct contact with other cats so any cat going outside is at risk. Rabies – vaccination against rabies is unnecessary in the UK as we are free from Rabies. The vet examined her. Kittens are protected from infectious diseases by the antibodies in their mother’s milk, once these antibodies reduce the kitten will make their own antibodies to protect them against disease.

Some kittens do not have good protection from their mother and so benefit from early vaccination. For most kittens the first injection is given at 9 weeks old with the second vaccination at around 12 weeks old (12 weeks old is the earliest a second vaccination can be given). So do your best to avoid all stress on the bitch. Vaccines offer very good protection however on some occasions an individual cat may not get full protection from the vaccine. This is usually because the cat was already ill or stressed at the time of injection. The vet will examine your cat before they give the injection and any concerns from the owner should be raised at this time. There are several highly infectious and potentially fatal diseases that can affect your rabbit.

Luckily a vaccination is available to protect your rabbit against the 2 most prevalent. It is essential that your rabbit receives regular booster injections to ensure they are fully protected. Myxomatosis – a disease caused by a virus that only affects rabbits. The virus causes a very severe swelling of the lips eyelids and genitals. Wild rabbits suffering from the disease are most at risk of being caught by predators. Pet rabbits can sometimes recover with very intensive nursing if the disease is caught early. Insects transmit the virus between rabbits including flies and rabbit fleas.

Cats can sometimes carry the rabbit flea so a house rabbit is still at risk of catching the disease. There is no cure for FIV and it cannot be caught by humans or other pets. It causes massive haemorrhage (bleeding) from the internal organs leading to a rapid death. The virus is spread rabbit to rabbit but also on contaminated equipment, clothing and feed; insects’ rodents and birds may also transmit the virus. A combined Myxomatosis and VHD vaccination can be given from 10 weeks of age. Scott Zverblis spoke to award winning Radio DJ and TV presenter, Neil Fox, before of his stint as a DJ on the Houndwaves Radio station at Crufts.

Herpes Tips

Herpes Zoster

Books Info: At some point in their lives, up to 20 percent of the population will be affected by shingles, which is officially known as herpes zoster and is caused by the varicella-zoster virus-the same virus that causes chickenpox. Progress was followed in 13 cases for periods up to two years. Patients with zoster-related rash (rash severity is greater than or equal to mild). The first symptom of zoster is burning pain or tingling on skin usually limited to one side of the body. This may be present for couple of days before a red or pinkish rash appears at that site. This may happen anywhere from 1 to 5 days before the rash appears. The rash soon turns into groups of blisters.

About Mary-Ellen Siegel Mary-Ellen Siegel, LCSW, a social worker, is a faculty member of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. The blisters start out clear but then pus or dark blood collects in the blisters before they crust over and begin to disappear. The pain may last longer. If diagnosed early, oral antiviral drugs can be prescribed to decrease the duration of skin lesions. They are routinely prescribed for severe cases of zoster e.g. Do not assume because a resident has had a shingles vaccine that they will not develop shingles. Acyclovir is an antiviral medication that may be prescribed to shorten the course, reduce pain, reduce complications or protect an immunocompromised individual.

Desciclovir, famciclovir, valaciclovir, and penciclovir are similar to acyclovir and may be used to treat zoster. For the greatest effect, acyclovir-like medications should be started within 24 hours of the appearance of pain or burning sensation and preferably before the appearance of the characteristic blisters. Severely immunocompromised individuals may require intravenous acyclovir therapy. Corticosteroids such as prednisone may occasionally be used to reduce inflammation and risk of post-herpetic neuralgia (severe pain related to nerves). They have been shown to be most effective in the elderly population. Corticosteroids have certain risks that should be considered before using them. Zostrix, a cream containing capsaicin (an extract of pepper), can be used to possibly prevent post-herpetic neuralgia.

The ointment is applied to painful areas of the skin three to four times a day and the pain gradually eases over one to three weeks. Over-the-counter pain medications like motrin or aleve may help the pain to some extent. These medications should be taken only after meals. They should be avoided if there is a history of allergy, gastritis, heartburn or peptic ulcer. If the pain is severe, motrin or aleve may not relieve it completely, and then opioids like oxycodone or morphine need to be prescribed. Cool wet compresses may reduce pain. Soothing baths and lotions such as colloidal oatmeal bath, starch baths or lotions, and calamine lotion may help to relieve itching and discomfort.

Rest in bed until fever resolves. Keep the skin clean, and do not re-use contaminated items. Non-disposable items should be washed in boiling water or otherwise disinfected before re-use. The patient may need to be isolated while lesions are oozing to prevent infecting others.

Herpes Tips

Genital Herpes virus Is The Most Common Sexually Transmitted Disease

Welcome to the Forum. I am not dying from herpes. HSV is known as a virus which unfortunately right after been infected with lies inside the nerve cells. All the while I still had anal itching. A child brushing against your upper thighs or abdomen while you have a recurrence won’t catch the virus. Vets working with dogs in many areas see regular outbreaks of parvo virus – the deadly diarrhoea infecting puppies – largely because the message about the value of vaccination for protecting your own pet does not always filter through. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect.

I don’t expect your sores to be some new mutant STD. As the days progressed, it got worse than those who gain the most common type of therapy can provide the mouth. I’ve found over the years, that being our own advocate and finding what we need to take care of ourselves, is usually the best way to go. I’m a wreck over this? You have to be cautious and don’t pass on it to other parts of the body. All the symptoms as listed above can be a symptom of genital herpes and if you notice some of those symptoms and signs within your probable partner it can be smart to skip the sexual activity. Is this still the case?

The suggested daily dose for adults is between 180mg taken 3 doses. Present analyses also reveal different herbal methods to eliminate herpes simplex virus symptoms and signs and then keep control on breakouts.

Herpes Tips

Arthritis Research & Therapy

Interest in applying gene therapy to the treatment of rheumatic diseases began in the early 1990s with attempts to deliver cDNAs to the synovial linings of joints [ 26 , 27 ]. We also found stronger associations between SLE and both anti-EA/D IgG and anti-VCA IgA (OR 5.76 (95% CI 3.00 to 11.06) and 5.05 (95% CI 1.95 to 13.13), respectively). Numerous different viruses can give rise to viral arthritis, including parvovirus B19 , hepatitis viruses hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, rubella virus, alphaviruses [Chikungunya virus, O’nyong-nyong virus, Ross River virus, Mayaro virus, Sindbis virus, Barmah Forest virus], retrovirus [HIV virus], Epstein Barr virus, Varicella-zoster virus, Epstein Barr virus, Mumps virus, Adenovirus or coxsackieviruses A9, B2, B3, B4, and B, Echovirus, Herpes simplex virus or cytomegalovirus. Serological evidence of active EBV infection was found in four of the patients with acute arthritis, none of the patients with chronic arthritis, and one of the ten healthy adults. Rubella virus RNA was detected in three specimens. Viral elements may also play a part in the pathogenesis of idiopathic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In ST, eight patients were double positive for parvovirus B19 and another viral DNA, with herpes simplex virus being the most prevalent.

Viruses can cause infection or act as cofactors in the development of rheumatic diseases. Diagnosis. Here we present the first results from the prospective cohort study known as RABBIT, which is the German acronym for rheumatoid arthritis–observation of biologic therapy. On her return to the UK (6 weeks after starting hydroxychloroquine), she was seen in clinic with a persisting exfoliating rash and eczematous patches. The dose escalation provided 10 10 , 10 11 and 10 12 DNase-resistant particles (DRP) (equivalent to virus particles) per milliliter per joint, with the volume of injected tgAAC94 depending on the joint: knees, 5 ml; ankles, 2 ml; wrists, 1 ml; and metacarpophalangeal joints, 0.5 ml. Cytomegalovirus viremia and tissue-invasive disease are common after kidney transplantation. Some viruses have an affinity only for certain cells.


Significantly, subjects in the trial were not allowed concomitant anti-TNF therapy. The study is now closed. It has not yet been published in the refereed literature but, according to data presented at the September 2007 meeting of the RAC, a total of 15 subjects were enrolled, 14 with RA and one with ankylosing spondylitis; 14 knee joints were treated, and one ankle joint. Four joints received placebo injections, five joints received 1010 DRP/ml and six joints received 1011 DRP/ml, but the highest proposed dose appears to have been omitted. No drug-related serious adverse events were noted. Antiarthritic genes are delivered intraarticularly to the individual joint, where their expression leads to the accumulation of sustained, therapeutic levels of the gene product. An additional therapeutic strategy for RA is the use of gene transfer to ablate the synovium and achieve a genetic synovectomy.

RA is associated with increased mortality 6, but treatment has improved dramatically during the past decade thanks to the introduction of proteinaceous antagonists of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other so-called biologics. The possibility of septic arthritis was considered, prednisolone stopped and an urgent orthopaedic consultation requested. According to the protocol, 120 subjects in the phase I/II study are divided into six cohorts of 20 individuals. The first three cohorts receive 1011, 1012 or 1013 DRP tgAAC94/ml, and cohorts 4 to 6 constitute a phase II expansion to increase subject numbers. Patients usually have no visible side effects when taken as directed for short periods. Molnar-Kimber, K. When the trial was placed on clinical hold, 127 subjects had been entered into the study – spread almost equally between placebo and each of the three doses of tgAAC94.

The majority had RA. Approximately 50% to 60% of the subjects were taking a TNF antagonist, most commonly etanercept, either alone or in combination with one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or prednisone; 52 subjects had received a second dose of tgAAC94. Prior to the subject’s death there had been eight serious adverse events, of which only one (septic arthritis) was considered probably related to the protocol. Five subjects had notably elevated liver function tests, but these resolved either spontaneously or upon discontinuation of methotrexate or statin. Opioid peptides unable to cross the blood-brain barrier are the natural ligands for opioid receptors. Vector genomes were detected in the peripheral blood cells of certain subjects, especially at the highest dose, suggesting leakage of vector from the joint. Serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 8 have attracted the most scrutiny.

Similar mechanisms are possibly at work in SLE, and the anti-EA response is possibly a serological marker of altered viral behaviour in response to, rather than as a cause of, an altered immunological state. The first efficacy data were presented at the 2007 annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology [29]. A higher percentage of subjects who received tgAAC94 reported improvements in joint symptoms, function, and pain than those receiving placebo.

Herpes Tips

Diagnosing Herpesvirus Infections by Real-Time Amplification and Rapid Culture

Genital herpes happens to be one of the most common STD (sexually transmitted disease). Without accurate testing it can be mistaken for something else, or something else can be mistaken for it. Some may be asymptomatic but may lead to significant longer term problems if left untreated (e.g., chronic pelvic inflammatory disease from chlamydia increases the risk of ectopic pregnancies and infertility) (1). Consider a Herpes Test Anyone who is concerned about the disease should consider getting tested. Genital specimens were taken from patients who attended the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases at the Dijkzigt Hospital Rotterdam presenting with symptoms of a primary genital ulcer. After that, this sample of cells will be examined under a microscope to see if there is any presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV). It finds the DNA or genetic material of the virus.

These guidelines have been adapted the article by Ooi in the February 2007 edition of Australian Prescriber (2). By culture 127 of 668 (19%) samples were positive for HSV-1, 72 of 668 (10.8%) specimens were positive for HSV-2, and 17 of 366 (4.6%) were positive for VZV. Using real-time amplification the numbers of positive specimens were 143 of 668 (21.4%), 97 of 668 (14.5%), and 27 of 366 (7.4%), respectively. So, if anyone is looking for a way to get the test done quickly and discreetly, then they can take the help of an online clinic. A blood test finds antibodies made by the immune system that fight the herpes infection. I commonly do offer performing gonorrhoea PCR on the urine as well. We concluded that the real-time amplification technique is suitable for the detection of human herpesvirus infection.

It offers a semiquantitative and reliable assay with a quick result that is more sensitive than rapid culture, especially for the diagnosis of HSV-2 and VZV infections. Standard laboratory technique for the detection of herpesvirus infection is cell culture and the recognition of a cytopathic effect followed by unequivocal serological identification of the virus involved. Modifications of the cell culture technique by centrifugation of the inocula on the cell monolayers and the use of immunofluorescence techniques provide a more rapid detection. Hepatitis B serology; HIV serology; chlamydia PCR (first void urine); chlamydia PCR (anal and throat swab – depending on sexual practice); gonorrhoea PCR (first void urine); gonorrhoea MC&S +/- PCR (anal and throat swab – depending on sexual practice). Increased sensitivity of the laboratory diagnosis of varicella zoster virus (VZV), another member of the herpesvirus family, has also been reported, when using DNA amplification (5, 10). For the diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, molecular techniques establishing viral loads in serum or plasma have largely replaced culture-based techniques (8). However, the clinical value of amplification techniques compared to culture using centrifugation and immunofluorescence for the detection of HCMV in other specimen’s remains to be assessed.

The implementation of molecular techniques in diagnostic virology has made a step forward by the availability of semiautomated extraction systems, as well with the introduction of real-time technology. However, pharyngeal Chlamydia tracomatis infection is firstly uncommon and usually symptomatic. Furthermore, real-time technologies enable one to quantify the results. Quantification of viral sequences in the specimens can provide more insight into the clinical significance of the presence of the detected virus. In this study, our goal was to compare culture techniques for the detection of HSV, VZV, and HCMV with a real-time amplification technique, allowing (relative) quantification of the viruses in the clinical material. Furthermore, with the introduction of a universal and nonhuman viral control, i.e., seal herpesvirus type 1 (PhHV-1), an accurate control for monitoring the process from extraction through amplification became feasible (9). Gonorrhoea PCR though convenient, does not allow for antibiotic sensitivity test; MC&S is preferable (though often involves another swab).

Anogenital samples (n = 161) were collected from patients attending the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases at the Dijkzigt Hospital Rotterdam. Dermal specimens (n = 116), ocular swabs (n = 27) and specimens from the oral region (n = 403), and bronchoalveolar lavage samples (n = 4) were collected from different patient groups. The specimens from the oral region consisted of 275 throat swabs that were taken from transplant patients (heart, liver, kidney, or bone marrow) who were screened for HCMV disease; and in case of ulcerative lesions specimens of the mouth or lips (n = 128) were collected. The dermal specimens were taken from clinical lesions suspected for HSV or VZV infection. Patients should make a follow up appointment at the time of the test. All specimens but the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens were collected in virus transport medium consisting of minimal essential medium-HEPES balanced salt solution (BioWhittaker, Verviers, Belgium) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin (100 U/ml), streptomycin (100 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (2.5 μg/ml). Culture technique.Monolayers of human embryonic lung fibroblasts were cultured in 24-well microtiter plates.

For each virus to be detected, 200 μl of the sample was inoculated in duplicate, and plates were centrifuged at 3,500 × g for 15 min at room temperature. After 48 h, one part of the cells was incubated with monoclonal antibodies against HSV-1 or HSV-2 (De Beer Medicals, Uden, The Netherlands, and Imagen, Dako Diagnostics, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom) or VZV or CMV (Argene-Biosoft, Varilhes, France) separately. The other part of the cell culture was maintained for another 14 days. When a cytopathic effect was observed, cells were incubated again with the monoclonal antibody specific for the agent related to the typical cytopathic effect. Nucleic acid extraction.For the isolation of nucleic acids from the original clinical material, the MagnaPure LC Isolation station (Roche Applied Science, Penzberg, Germany) was used. Briefly, 200 μl of material was isolated in duplicate using the Total Nucleic Acid isolation kit (Roche Applied Science) exactly as described by the manufacturer. The nucleic acid was resuspended in a final volume of 100 μl.

To monitor the whole process from isolation of nucleic acids until real-time detection, a universal internal control was used. This internal control sample consisted of a whole-virus preparation of a seal herpesvirus (PhHV-1), which was added to the original clinical sample at a final concentration of approximately 5,000 to 10,000 DNA copies per ml, equivalent to a threshold cycle (Ct) value of approximately 30 in the real-time detection system used (9). Real-time TaqMan assay.The amplification tests were performed as individual assays for each virus. Multiplex amplification was not performed, as this resulted in a loss of sensitivity (data not shown). Primers for the detection of HSV-1 and VZV were published before (10, 11). The sequences for HSV-2, CMV, and PhHV-1 were designed using Primer Express software (Applied Biosystems, Nieuwerkerk aan de IJssel, The Netherlands). The sequences of the primers and the probes used, and the location of the genes from which they were derived, are listed in Table 1.

All PCR amplification reactions were performed in a 50-μl volume containing 2× TaqMan Universal Mastermix (Applied Biosystems), forward primer (45 pmol/μl), 2.5 pmol of reverse primer, 5 pmol of TaqMan probe, and 20 μl of isolated DNA. The reactions were carried out in a 96-well plate, which was centrifuged for 1 min at 1,000 × g at room temperature in a swing-out rotor (Rotina 48R; Hettich, Tuttlingen, Germany) to remove small air bubbles in the reaction vessels. The amplification and detection was performed with an ABI Prism 7700 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems). After incubation for 2 min at 50°C with uracil N′-glycosylase to inactivate possible PCR contaminants from former reactions, the reaction tube was incubated for 10 min at 95°C to inactivate the uracil N′-glycosylase and to release the activity of the AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase. The PCR cycling program consisted of 42 two-step cycles of 15 s at 95°C and 60 s at 60°C. Real-time measurements were taken, and a Ct value for each sample was calculated by determining the point at which the fluorescence exceeded a background limit of 0.04. Each run contained several negative controls (no template), and a positive control containing a known viral copy number based on a standard counted by electron microscopy (EM) when available.

Each specimen was isolated and amplified in duplicate and only considered positive if both replications were above the threshold limit. Standardization and quality control (QC).For the standardization of the HCMV and HSV-1 and HSV-2 real-time detection assays, an EM-counted standard (Advanced Biotechnologies Incorporated) was used. Dilutions ranging from 10 million down to 10 copies per ml were made to characterize linearity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the TaqMan assay. For VZV and PhHV-1, such a standard is not available. For these viruses, the standard curves generated were extrapolated on the basis of the curves made for HSV-1 and -2. Statistics.Epi Info 6.02 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.) was used to calculate the characteristics of the different assays compared. The means of the TaqMan test results and their differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using confidence interval analysis (7).

QC.To enable accurate monitoring of the amplification steps combined with automated extractions, we included a universal control in each clinical sample before the extraction was started. This consisted of a seal herpesvirus (PhHV-1) which was added at a low concentration to each sample. This internal viral control agent was isolated and amplified in each sample, and this standard provided a measurement for the precision and reproducibility of the assays (mean Ct value, 30.7; coefficient of variation, 3.2% [data not shown]). In case the Ct value of the internal control virus exceeded 32.7 (mean + 2 standard deviations), it was assumed that inhibition or loss of sample had occurred. The whole procedure was then repeated, and in most cases, the results were within the expected range. It was established that in 0.52% of the clinical samples, no amplification product could be detected in duplicate aliquots. These samples were therefore classified under the heading “no amplification possible” and excluded from the analysis.


The cause of these undetectable results was not determined. To determine the detection limits of the amplification reactions, data generated using dilution series of available EM standards were used. However, for the detection of CMV it was shown that the amount counted by EM must be an underestimation, since dilutions down to 0.1 copy per reaction were always detected (results not shown). More-accurate data were observed using the EM-quantified viral stocks of HSV-1 and -2. Participation in the EU QC program determined the lower detection level for these two viruses: 580 copies per ml for HSV-1 and 430 copies per ml for HSV-2. Clinical samples.A total of 711 samples were included in the study. Of these, 668 samples were processed for the detection of HSV.

For the presence of HCMV, 86 specimens were screened. Detection of VZV was carried out on clinical indication in 366 specimens. By culture 127 of 668 (19%) samples were positive for HSV-1 and 72 of 668 (10.8%) specimens were positive for HSV-2. HCMV was found by culture in 12 of 86 (14.0%) specimens, and 17 of 366 (4.6%) were positive for VZV. By real-time amplification the number of specimens positive for HSV-1 was 143 of 668 (21.4%) and the number positive for HSV-2 was 97 of 668 (14.5%). By real-time PCR 17 of 86 (19.7%) specimens were positive for CMV and 27 of 366 (7.4%) were positive for VZV. These results are summarized in Table 2.

The samples showing discrepant results were retested in both assays when sufficient material was available. A total of 24 (20 only PCR positive) remained discrepant for HSV-1, 27 (26 only PCR positive) remained discrepant for HSV-2, 7 (6 only PCR positive) remained discrepant for CMV, and 12 (11 only PCR positive) remained discrepant for VZV. Subsequently, the clinical data of the patients with discrepant results were reviewed. Based on results from previously or subsequently collected samples the majority of the PCR-positive but culture-negative specimens could be considered to be true positives. Of the 20 patients whose specimens were HSV-1 cell culture negative and positive by PCR, 12 were known to be latently infected with HSV-1, and 3 of the 4 patients whose specimens were HSV-1 cell culture positive and negative by PCR were known to be latently infected with HSV-1. With regard to HSV-2, 14 of the 26 patients whose specimens were HSV-2 cell culture negative and positive by PCR were patients with documented recurrences of genital herpes. One patient suffered from a herpes keratitis.

With regard to CMV, six samples were positive for CMV only by real-time PCR. Two specimens were collected from patients for whom samples taken from other sites were also positive for CMV; three samples were double infected with HSV. It is conceivable that in cell culture of specimens containing both HSV and CMV, the latter virus may not be detected due to the more rapidly growing HSV. Lastly, all 11 specimens positive for VZV only by PCR were obtained from patients with clinical symptoms of a primary infection or a reactivation of VZV, including two patients with neurological symptoms such as facial paresis and a vesicle on the tympanic membrane. The one discrepant specimen shown to contain HSV-2 by PCR, and in which cell culture identified VZV, was collected from an anal lesion. The clinical presentation of the lesion was typical of anogenital herpes rather than of a solitary VZV eruption. As we did not define an extended “gold standard,” we calculated the test characteristics of the real-time PCR using the cell culture as standard and vice versa.

The results are shown in Tables 3 and 4. Compared to the cell culture as the standard, the real-time PCR is sensitive but also less specific for detecting HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, and VZV. When the real-time PCR is taken as the standard, the cell culture is much less sensitive for the detection of VZV, HCMV, HSV-2, and, to a lesser extent, HSV-1. Viral loads.We determined whether the viral load in the clinical sample could explain the differences between the results of the real-time PCR and cell culture, assuming that the viral load is correlated with the amount of infectious virus. Since the viral load in the sample can be relatively assessed by the Ct value, we compared these values for the samples that were cell culture positive with values for the samples that were cell culture negative. High Ct values are representative of a low viral load, while a low Ct value reflects a high viral load. In all cases the culture-positive samples had a lower Ct value than the culture negative samples.

The differences for the mean Ct values were statistically significant for VZV (−4.57; 95% confidence interval, −9.00 to −1.29), HSV-1 (−7.77; 95% confidence interval, −10.7 to −4.79), and HSV-2 (−10.5; 95% confidence interval, −12.6 to −8.39). The results are shown in Table 5. Double infection.Using real-time PCR, 11 double infections could be detected, while cell culture yielded only 1 of these double infections. The following combinations were found: HSV-1-HSV-2 (four times), HSV-1-CMV (three times), HSV-2-CMV (one time), and HSV-1-VZV (three times). In this prospective study, real-time amplification techniques were compared with the rapid cell culture technique for the detection of herpesviruses in samples collected from genital, dermal, and oropharyngeal lesions. The real-time PCR appeared to be a more sensitive assay than cell culture for the detection of all four herpesviruses studied. Whenever a new technique is more sensitive than a previously used one, it is important to look in detail at the clinical relevance of the specimens that are solely positive by this new technology, in order to assess the specificity of the newer assay.

Definition of an expanded gold standard using a third technique seems to have advantages. However, then the question arises whether this technique has been validated and why this assay can be considered to be a reliable test to be used as a decisive judge. Detailed analysis of the patients whose samples yield discrepant results revealed that the majority of the PCR-only-positive results were probably truly positive results. The specificity of the real-time PCR assays was also tested by applying the tests on cell cultures of other viruses that can be expected to be present in the samples that were collected. All primer sets were specific for the intended target (data not shown). The predictive value of a test is dependent on the prevalence of the disease in the population. In fact, all specimens except the throat swabs that were collected to screen for CMV were obtained from patients with lesions.

Therefore, the samples with test results solely positive by real-time PCR were obtained from patients with relevant symptomatic disease; consequently, the predictive value of a positive test result relative to disease was high. It must be noted that the predictive value of a positive PCR test in comparison with the cell culture as gold standard was rather low, only because the cell culture was more often negative for samples collected from patients with symptomatic disease. As few patients without lesions were included in the study, the predictive values of a negative test result excluding disease might be different when determined in populations with differing prevalences of the conditions in question. An exception can be made for the throat swabs collected in this study, because these swabs were taken from transplant patients in order to monitor CMV activity regardless of the presence of symptoms. In fact, monitoring CMV disease in these patients can be carried out preferably by testing plasma specimens or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8). In other studies detection of HSV by amplification techniques turned out to be more sensitive than cell culture, especially for HSV-2 and VZV (2, 4, 5, 6). In particular for VZV, the viral load of the culture-negative specimens as represented by the low Ct value was relatively high, indicating the presence of high levels of VZV DNA and the instability of the virus and/or the presence of incomplete, noninfectious virus.

The MagnaPure LC system proved to be a reliable and standardized system for extracting nucleic acids from the dermal, genital, and throat specimens collected in virus transport medium, as has been described previously by Espy et al. (6). An advantage of the closed real-time PCR is the lack of contamination during processing, since the reaction tubes do not need to be opened for the detection step (10). The addition of the PhHV DNA as an exogenous internal control provided the evidence that negative results were real negatives and not caused by inhibition. For a low proportion of the specimens the nucleic acid extraction had to be repeated to remove inhibiting substances. Of importance is the determination of the lower detection level of the real-time amplification test developed. The introduction of internationally active QC programs for viral diagnostic assays is important to validate the assays that laboratories develop in-house.

Initiatives from the EU QC program (now taken over by the QC for Molecular Diagnostics program), endorsed by organizations such as the European Society for Clinical Virology and the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, are instrumental to implement better-defined standard assays. Furthermore, the introduction of internal controls into each clinical sample increases the true value of the results generated. Technologies that fulfill these requirements are currently available and should be mandatorily introduced with each in-house developed assay that is used in clinical diagnostics. In our laboratory setting, the rapid cell culture inoculation of the monolayers is performed each working day shortly after arrival of the specimens; after 48 h the detection of viral antigens is executed, and positive test results are reported to the clinician. The automated nucleic acid extraction is also commenced every working day and carried out in the afternoon or overnight. The amplification step is performed the next morning. All real-time PCR results are available within 24 h after arrival at the laboratory whether they are positive or negative, except during weekends.

The mean time to produce a positive result by cell culture was 5.9 days (range, 1 to 20 days), including weekends and holidays, while the mean time to release a negative result to the clinician was 15.7 days (range, 13 to 24 day). The advantage of the real-time PCR relative to the speed of reporting both a negative as well as a positive result to the clinician is therefore obvious. We did not execute an extensive cost comparison. In The Netherlands, a fixed price can be charged for laboratory tests. The price for a rapid cell culture using three different monoclonal antibodies is approximately 47.00 euros (without doctors’ fee), and the price for four PCR tests (three diagnostic targets and one for the internal control) using an automated system is about 83.00 euros. However, the prices for the commercially available components of nucleic acid extraction and for the real-time PCR are decreasing rapidly. At the time of writing, in our situation the price for the reagents of one nucleic acid extraction with the MagnaPure instrument together with the reagents needed for four real-time PCRs is approximately 15.00 euros.

We expect that in the near future the total costs for nucleic acid extraction and the subsequent real-time PCR tests will be comparable with the costs for rapid cell culture. In conclusion, real-time amplification technique in combination with automated nucleic acid extraction is suitable for the detection of human herpesviruses HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, and HCMV in specimens collected from genital, dermal, oral, and oropharyngeal lesions. In comparison to rapid culture, this real-time method is a rapid, more sensitive, semiquantitative, and reliable assay.

Herpes Tips

Management of Common Oral Sores

Pramoxine (Itch-X, PramaGel, Anti-Itch, and others) is a topical anesthetic prescribed for the temporarily relief of pain and itching associated with burns, rashes, sunburn, eczema, hives, cold sores, insect bites, poison ivy, poison ivy, poison sumac, vaginal itching, and hemorrhoids. and engaged in the practice of general or specialized medicine and surgery. It seems that millions of people believe that Carmex is an effective cold sore treatment, as well. We collect information about the content (including ads) you use across this site and use it to make both advertising and content more relevant to you on our network and other sites. Preventing cold sores is tricky because people with HSV-1 can shed the virus, or transmit it to someone else, even when they have no symptoms. When your child develops a herpes infection for the first time (primary HSV infection) , mouth sores, fever, and swollen, tender lymph glands are the most common symptoms, usually seen after swelling and reddening of the gums. I do not drink any other carbonated drinks so it is possible that the “fizz” is the cause or it could be the sugar or the chemicals – I will probably never know but I will now go back to my Coke free lifestyle for sure.

Please describe your experience with herpes simplex infections (cold sores, non-genital). What makes herpes (cold sores) recur? These blisters dry up rapidly and leave scabs that last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. How were your herpes simples infections (cold sores, non-genital) treated? What specialists treat osteoarthritis? Cold Sores (Nongenital Herpes Simplex Infections) Article Herpes simplex infections (nongenital cold sores) facts What are herpes simplex infections? Type 1 Diabetes.

Pediatric herpes simplex – A Review of Common Pediatric Lip Lesions: Herpes Simplex. What is the prognosis for a person with diabetes? What are the possible complications of chickenpox? Cold sores are blisters around the mouth and nose, caused by the herpes simplex virus. Minor RAS is frequently seen on the floor of the mouth, inside of the cheek, and on the ventral and lateral board of the tongue. Rosoff, DDS, on March 1, 2007 and Edited by Charlotte E. • Major RAS (Sutton’s disease) is larger ulcers (>10 mm) that are usually associated with medical comorbidities.

Healing is slow, over 10 to 40 days. How can I avoid insect stings? Since not all oral sores are benign, a careful differential diagnosis is important. Cold sore Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention of this common lip sore. Cold sores are common and painful blisters around the lips and mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus. I rally need a natural as possible way to get rid of my cold sore, its looks gross and feels gross and i hate it! Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact.

Scully C. Herpetic stomatitis is an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), or oral herpes. Sunburn pictures What first-aid measures should be taken with sunburn? Cold sores usually clear up without treatment within 7 to 10 days. Often that shedding occurs when the individual has a recurring outbreak, which is why those with herpes are advised against any skin to skin contact before, during, and even a short time after an outbreak. Baker Cyst Article Baker cyst facts What is a Baker cyst? McBride DR.

Management of aphthous ulcers. Am Fam Physician. How do cold sores spread? What is it like to have braces? Signs and symptoms of cold sores; What causes cold sores? The diagnosis and management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A consensus approach.

J Am Dental Assoc. 2003;134:200-207. 4. Barrons RW. These tiny mouth ulcers with white-gray center and a well defined red border can be there inside your lips, cheeks and sometimes, though rarely, on your tongue. Am J Health Syst Pharm. Once it has attached itself to your nervous system you are always at risk for a cold sore occurring and since these are both unsightly and uncomfortable you want to get rid of them as quickly as possible.

Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a common infection that most often involves the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). Preeti L, Magesh Rajkumar K, Karthik R. The fact that these cancers are caused by a virus may explain why they tend to occur in people with AIDS when their immune systems begin to fail. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. Symptoms of a primary HSV infection. In general, autoinoculation is very uncommon after the primary initial outbreak, because your immune system has been established against herpes simplex. What is the treatment for arthritis?

Mucosal disease series. Number VI. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Is an e-cigarette harmful? Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Article Intestinal gas facts What causes belching or burping? 7. Rogers RS III.

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