The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. She is nursing two calves. Signs BAV-infected animals can display a number of general clinical signs including fever, lethargy, reduced appetite, abdominal distension, diarrhea, tarry stools, and weight loss. Twenty-one percent of the farmers vaccinated continuously against BHV-1. FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str… The PCR provided evidence of ovine herpes virus type 2. The results of the current study revealed that BVDV, BoHV1 and BLV infections are present in different regions of Iran and thus it seems necessary to implement control programmes to prevent further spread of mentioned pathogens.
A “first calf heifer“ is a cow that has had her very first baby. MCF is caused by members of the genus Macavirus ( Davison et al., 2009), subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae ( Russell et al., 2009 and O’Toole and Li, 2014). MCF has two principal epidemiological and clinical manifestations. The first is induced by alcelaphineherpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), which uses wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu and Connochaetes taurinus) as a carrier and occurs predominantly within the African continent. The second is caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), which occurs outside the African continent and affects cattle, bison and deer, although sheep are the recognized carriers ( Brown et al., 2007 and Russell et al., 2009). Consequently, these manifestations are referred to as wildebeest associated (WA-MCF) and sheep-associated (SA-MCF) MCF, respectively (Brown et al., 2007). G.
In contrast, an early study  demonstrated the efficacy of an i.m. Transmission of OvHV-2 to susceptible animals is predominantly horizontal (Russell et al., 2009), with nasal dissemination being demonstrated experimentally (Li et al., 1998 and Nishimori et al., 2004). Vertical transmission has been suspected due to the detection of antibodies in virus-free and gnotobiotic lambs (Rossiter, 1981) and the identification of AlHV-1 from the fetus of wildebeest (Plowright, 1965). Although reports confirming the vertical transmission of OvHV-2 in cattle are sparse, viral DNA has been detected in an asymptomatic calf born to a cow with SA-MCF (O’Toole et al., 1997). Specific antibodies against BHV- 1 can be detected using several serological tests. compatible histologic lesions, ruling out other differential diagnoses). Clinical evaluation revealed corneal opacity, lacrimation and severe, bilateral, mucopurulent nasal discharge (Fig.
Quick freezing of the meat arrests acid production and consequently the virus remains infective for about 6 months. Further extension westward from Egypt into North Africa is possible and creates a danger of the coexistence of LSD with the screwworm infestation. The clinical condition of the cow deteriorated rapidly and the animal died spontaneously. An effective vaccine is available. Johne’s disease occurs in many countries and is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Case 2 had bilateral corneal oedema, ulcerative stomatitis (D) and abomasitis. Infrared thermography (IRT) can be used to measure the heat emitted from a surface and to display and store an image and associated data.
This cow also died spontaneously. Vaccination with attenuated virus offers the most promising method of control. An on-site visit to the farm revealed that there were 250 cows, a small flock of sheep reared for domestic consumption and intermingling between these species. The owner reported that all cows were maintained on pastures containing Brachiaria brizantha and were supplemented with corn silage and a soya bean-based ration, while water was supplied ad libitum at drinking troughs. Both animals were submitted for routine necropsy examination soon after death. Tissue samples from the brain, lungs, kidneys, liver and myocardium of both cows and from the myocardium, lungs, kidneys and liver of the fetus were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed routinely. Fresh tissue samples from the pregnant cow (brain and kidney) and fetus (brain) were kept at −80°C until used for molecular diagnostics.