Chapter 17 of: Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. The disease, also called herpes zoster, can occur at any age, but it is most common among adults over 60 due to weakened immune systems. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. VZV can be transmitted from zoster lesions to cause primary varicella in susceptible persons. The study showed that the vaccine decreased the incidence of shingles by 55% across all age groups, the incidence of ophtalmic ophthalmic herpes zoster (eye infection by the virus) by 63 percent, and hospitalization by 65 percent. In these studies, CDC analyzed data reported to the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) regarding MMRV vaccine given to children aged 12-23 months, the age when the first dose of MMRV or MMR and varicella vaccines is recommended. Decades later the same varicella zoster virus may become reactivated for a variety of reasons, and cause symptoms of herpes zoster, or shingles (which is not the same as the genital herpes virus).
Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Since like 99.5% of us who are currently over 40 have had chicken pox or were vaccinated for it, shingles is hovering in wait for our immune systems to change due some random event. That’s why the vaccine is recommended for everyone 60 and older. In 1980, as vice-president of Systems Development of Cascade Graphics Development, he developed the first microcomputer-based computer-aided drafting (CAD) system (prior to the well known AutoCad product; see figure). In fact, a critical analysis of the effectiveness of this vaccine was recently published in which a closed population of a Los Angeles district was evaluated over 10 years. Although the respondents were selected by non-random method (accidental sampling), the equilibrium of gender and age proved that this study was of good representativeness and could reflect the overall epidemiology situation of HZ in Guangdong. Brett (2007) interprets these sorts of findings to mean that a 70 year old person has about a 10% chance of developing Shingles over the next decade.
Seward, the communities chosen were fairly representative of different segments of the American population. All is not totally rosy as Arroyo (2012) raises the specter of introducing yet another virus to ones system that may activate in some clever new fashion down the way. However, if this new expression takes 30 or 40 years to activate, one need not be too concerned unless life expectancy increase rapidly as well. Arroyo, JC. Unsettled Issues of Zostavax Vaccine. A zoster vaccine (Zostavax™, Merck & Co., Inc.) is licensed and recommended for adults 60 years of age and older in the United States. If the disease does appear, the sooner treatment is sought, the more effective it will be in relieving pain.
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/6/889.1.short# Brett, AS. What Is the Incidence of Shingles? Published in Journal Watch General Medicine, November 15, 2007. http://general-medicine.jwatch.org/cgi/content/full/2007/1115/1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Now, Merck seems to have overcome the manufacturing issues, and so marketing has ratcheted up, and you will see large signs advertising the availability of the vaccine at local drug stores and super markets throughout the US this summer. Adults who are already vaccinated with PPSV23 should receive PCV13 at least a year later (Tomczyk et al., 2014). Shingles Information for Health professionals.
http://www.nfid.org/idinfo/shingles/Information-for-Health-Professionals Oxman MN et al for the Shingles Prevention Study Group. He co-developed the Goldman/Blake remediation program for children with specific visual process deficits; this program was used in a pilot study at the Hope-Haven Hospital in Florida. In theory, constant exposure to chickenpox in the environment boosts natural immunity to both chickenpox and shingles, thereby reducing the number of shingles outbreaks when chickenpox is active in an area. Gauthier A, Breuer J, Carrington D, Martin M, Rémy V. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of Herpes Zoster Vaccine in persons aged 50–59 years. Seward, “The study was an exciting project that gave us more detailed information concerning varicella cases than we normally obtain about diseases monitored under the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System.” She added that surveillance would continue in Antelope Valley and West Philadelphia through 2004. Span, P.
The Shingles Vaccine Returns. The New York Times, 5-15-2012. http://newoldage.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/15/the-shingles-vaccine-returns US Food and Drug Administration. Zostavax™ questions and answers. Available at http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/QuestionsaboutVaccines/UCM070418.